2016 Ontario Trap Catches: Spotted Wing Drosophila

Table of Contents

  1. 2016 trapping locations
  2. Current update for Ontario
  3. SWD historical data
  4. Links to weekly updates in other regions

This project was made possible by the Ontario Berry Growers Association and the Ontario Highbush Blueberry Growers Association. Funding assistance to the OBGA was provided by Dow AgroSciences Canada, Engage Agro Corp., Bayer CropSciences Inc. and E.I. du Pont Canada Company. We are grateful for the continued support of the HJ Heinz Co. for the apple cider vinegar used as bait in our traps.

This project was also funded in part through Growing Forward 2, a federal-provincial-territorial initiative. The Agricultural Adaptation Council assists in the delivery of Growing Forward 2 in Ontario.

2016 trapping locations

Map showing 2016 trap locations

Current updates for Ontario

For up-to-date information see www.Ontario.ca/spottedwing.

Follow Pam Fisher on Twitter for mid-week updates @fisherpam . #berryipm

August 26

The spotted wing drosophila monitoring program has now ended and traps have been removed from most sites. Thanks to Erin Hanna - OBGA- for coordinating the project and to Christine Wyville- OMAFRA -for processing the samples from each site - she counted thousands of flies! Thanks also to growers, OMAFRA scouts, and other volunteers - including scouts from N.M Bartlett, and consultants Lindsay Pink, Margaret Appleby and Kevin Schooley who collected traps and sent in samples each week. We really appreciate the help of all these volunteers.

SWD populations continue to be very high and damage is easy to find now in all berry crops. A combination of control strategies is necessary to keep damage from this pest to a minimum. These include frequent thorough harvest, immediate postharvest cooling, and weekly insecticides with very good spray coverage. Even this is not enough for blueberry growers at this time of the year, many have stopped harvest now. I estimate 10-20% of the blueberry crop has been left behind. What are your estimates?

Day-neutral strawberries and fall-bearing raspberry crops are also under high pressure from SWD. It is important to re-apply insecticides after a heavy rain (½ -1 inch or more). If you run into problems with SWD, strip all ripe fruit off the plant, spray and start again. We are interested in documenting crop losses from this pest, so let me know!

Recent research is suggesting that landscape fabric (black weed mat) may help reduce pressure from SWD. Fallen fruit essentially cook on the landscape fabric, and/or larvae fail to develop into pupae because they can't hunker down in the soil surface.

Here are the products registered on 2016 for SWD. Remember MAKO is not registered on blueberries.

Summary of SWD trap captures
Week traps collected
# Sites checked
# sites with SWD
# SWD trapped
Ave # SWD/trap
Counties where SWD was found
Crops where SWD was trapped
May 29 - June 4
7
0
0
0
-
-
June 5 - June 11
16
2
2
1.0
Essex, Niagara Wild hosts
June 12 - June 18
24
3
3
1.0
Kevnt, Elgin, Niagara Wild hosts, strawberries
June 19 - June 25
25
3
3
1.0
Essex, Middlesex Wild hosts, raspberries
June 26 - July 2
30
4
11
1.6
Essex, Kent, Brant, Elgin Wild hosts, strawberries, raspberries
July 3 - July 9
29
9
27
1.8
Essex, Kent, Middlesex, Norfolk, Oxford, Waterloo, Niagara Wild hosts, raspberries, peaches, cherries
July 10 - July 15
30
30
136
4.7
Essex, Elgin, Middlesex, Norfolk, Brant, Oxford, Haldimand, Niagara, Durham Wild hosts, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, peaches, cherries
July 17-23
30
30
1,757
31.4
Essex, Kent, Elgin, Middlesex, Norfolk, Brant, Oxford, Haldimand, Niagara, Wellington, Peterborough, Northumberland, Grey Wild hosts, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, peaches, cherries, saskatoons, plums, pears
July 24-31
29
27
4,147
59.2
Essex, Kent, Elgin, Middlesex, Norfolk, Brant, Oxford, Haldimand, Niagara, Wellington, Peterborough, Northumberland, Grey , Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Wild hosts, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, peaches, cherries, saskatoons, plums, pears
August 1-6
29
29
6,800
80
Essex, Kent, Elgin, Middlesex, Norfolk, Brant, Oxford, Haldimand, Niagara, Wellington, Peterborough, Northumberland, Grey , Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Wild hosts, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, peaches, cherries, saskatoons, plums, pears
August 7-13
30
30
24,296
264.1
All monitored sites All monitored crops
August 14-22
30
26
25,079
295.0
All monitored sites All monitored crops

*Data incomplete at this time

Average # SWD/postiive trap

August 11:

  • SWD numbers continue to increase! Pressure from this insect is very high now.
  • Use all forms of management- weekly sprays, regular, thorough harvest (every 2 days or less) and immediate post-harvest cooling to less than 5°C (preferably cooler).
  • SWD is present at almost all of our monitored sites, including Grey county and eastern Ontario to Ottawa.
  • Use the salt water test to look for SWD in fruit.
  • Pyrethroid insecticides (MAKO) will not work well in hot weather and will cause in increase in mites. Save the use of this product for later - when weather cools off and mite pressure is low. (check the web for a list registered insecticides for SWD)
  • Two spotted spider mite is also a problem in many strawberry and raspberry fields - SWD sprays are hard on predators (especially pyrethroids) so monitor your fields for mites.
  • Blueberry growers - if you can't spray your whole field, at least consider spraying outside rows
  • Heavy rains will reduce insecticide residue. Re-application is needed after ½-inch rains.
  • If you can't keep up with harvest in day neutral strawberries consider removing older, thick blocks.
  • If severe infestation occurs, strip ripening fruit from infested blocks of raspberries and strawberries, spray and start again.
  • In fall-bearing raspberries, bees and pollinators are abundant right now. Protect pollinators by choosing least toxic options and spraying at night.
  • Hot, humid conditions can lead to spray burn. Make sure temps have cooled off below 25°C before you spray.

August 3:

  • SWD numbers have increased dramatically.
  • More sites with SWD
  • More counties where SWD has been trapped (+Grey , Wellington, Peterborough, Northumberland)
  • All ripening fruit at risk
  • Huge increase in numbers of SWD, especially near June bearing strawberries, and wild raspberries.
  • Damage detected in commercial fruit

More SWD are being trapped in crops, not just the wild hosts around the farm. We are now catching almost 100 flies per trap, another generation is emerging and damage to crops is definitely occurring. Low levels of damage have been detected in raspberries, blackberries and day neutral strawberries.

All growers should assume that SWD is present now. Fruit which is ripening is at risk for SWD damage. SWD should be managed by picking fruit early, thoroughly and often. Keep fruit cold after harvest. Weekly sprays will help keep SWD under control and are now required on all ripening fruit. A list of registered insecticides for SWD can be found here: Ontario.ca/spotted wing - products registered for SWD.

Salt water assessments of harvested fruit should be done routinely as an early warning of SWD problems.

In summer fruiting raspberries SWD is easy to find now. All ripening and ripened raspberries and blackberries are at risk. Keep a lid on the SWD problem by frequent harvest, weekly insecticides and cooling fruit ASAP after harvest. Postharvest insecticides are a good idea if there are fall bearing raspberries or blueberries adjacent to summer red raspberry blocks.

In fall bearing raspberries, SWD can build up on the early fruit at the base of the cane. If you are not harvesting this fruit, consider removing it. If this is not possible, direct a nozzle to the base of the canes and start an insecticide program now on fall bearing varieties where fruit is ripening.

Blueberries - Growers are busy harvesting early and mid-season varieties. Weekly insecticides for SWD are very important to help prolong harvest. Managing preharvest intervals can be difficult in blueberries, spraying blocks of varieties at different times can help. Growers are reporting good control of Japanese beetles with Exirel, which also controls SWD

Strawberries should be mowed and renovated as soon as possible after harvest. Mowing strawberries will help fruit to dry up and make it less attractive to SWD. Growers who are renovating strawberries do not need to spray for SWD unless they have raspberries or blueberries or other susceptible fruit close by.

Day neutral strawberries - In new plantings, try to keep ripe fruit picked every 1-2 days and delay SWD sprays if possible. However, in overwintering fields, pressure is high and an insecticide program should begin now. Options include group 5 insecticides such as Delegate, Success, and Entrust, and group 1 insecticide - Malathion. Malathion for SWD will also control tarnished plant bug, and is a good choice now. Avoid use of Mako (group 3) at this time, because it can lead to more problems with spider mites. Mako will work well in cooler weather.

July 29:

  • SWD numbers have increased dramatically.
  • More sites with SWD
  • More counties where SWD has been trapped (+Grey , Wellington, Peterborough, Northumberland)
  • All ripening fruit at risk
  • Huge increase in numbers of SWD, especially near June bearing strawberries, and wild raspberries.
  • Damage detected in commercial fruit

More SWD are being trapped in crops, not just the wild hosts around the farm. We are now catching almost 100 flies per trap, another generation is emerging and damage to crops is definitely occurring. Low levels of damage have been detected in raspberries, blackberries and day neutral strawberries.

All growers should assume that SWD is present now. Fruit which is ripening is at risk for SWD damage. SWD should be managed by picking fruit early, thoroughly and often. Keep fruit cold after harvest. Weekly sprays will help keep SWD under control and are now required on all ripening fruit. A list of registered insecticides for SWD can be found here: Ontario.ca/spotted wing - products registered for SWD.

Salt water assessments of harvested fruit should be done routinely as an early warning of SWD problems.

In summer fruiting raspberries SWD is easy to find now. All ripening and ripened raspberries and blackberries are at risk. Keep a lid on the SWD problem by frequent harvest, weekly insecticides and cooling fruit ASAP after harvest. Postharvest insecticides are a good idea if there are fall bearing raspberries or blueberries adjacent to summer red raspberry blocks.

In fall bearing raspberries, SWD can build up on the early fruit at the base of the cane. If you are not harvesting this fruit, consider removing it. If this is not possible, direct a nozzle to the base of the canes and start an insecticide program now on fall bearing varieties where fruit is ripening.

Blueberries: Growers are busy harvesting early and mid-season varieties. Weekly insecticides for SWD are very important to help prolong harvest. Managing preharvest intervals can be difficult in blueberries, spraying blocks of varieties at different times can help. Growers are reporting good control of Japanese beetles with Exirel, which also controls SWD

Strawberries should be mowed and renovated as soon as possible after harvest. Mowing strawberries will help fruit to dry up and make it less attractive to SWD. Growers who are renovating strawberries do not need to spray for SWD unless they have raspberries or blueberries or other susceptible fruit close by.

Day neutral strawberries - In new plantings, try to keep ripe fruit picked every 1-2 days and delay SWD sprays if possible. However, in overwintering fields, pressure is high and an insecticide program should begin now. Options include group 5 insecticides such as Delegate, Success, and Entrust, and group 1 insecticide - Malathion. Malathion for SWD will also control tarnished plant bug, and is a good choice now. Avoid use of Mako (group 3) at this time, because it can lead to more problems with spider mites. Mako will work well in cooler weather

July 22:

  • SWD numbers have increased dramatically
  • More sites with SWD
  • More counties where SWD has been trapped (+Wellington, Peterborough, Northumberland)
  • All ripening fruit at risk
  • Huge increase in numbers of SWD, especially near June bearing strawberries, and wild raspberries

Damage detected in commercial fruit

We are now catching over 10 flies per trap which generally means that damage to crops is occurring. More SWD are being trapped in crops, not just the wild hosts around the farm. Low levels of damage have been detected in raspberries and day neutral strawberries.

All growers should assume that SWD is present now. Fruit which is ripening is at risk for SWD damage. SWD should be managed by picking fruit early, thoroughly and often. Keep fruit cold after harvest. Weekly sprays will help keep SWD under control and are now required on all ripening fruit. A list of registered insecticides for SWD can be found here: Ontario.ca/spotted wing - products registered for SWD.

Salt water assessments of harvested fruit should be done routinely as an early warning of SWD problems.

In summer fruiting raspberries growers have typically managed SWD by harvesting thoroughly every day or two. However, this year, the crop is earlier, abundant and SWD numbers are higher than usual. An insecticide should be included in your SWD management program if you expect to continue harvesting into next week. A postharvest spray on raspberries is a good idea if fruit is left behind as you move from one variety (i.e. Prelude) to the next.

In fall bearing raspberries, SWD can build up on the early fruit at the base of the cane. If you are not harvesting this fruit, consider removing it. If this is not possible, direct a nozzle to the base of the canes and start an insecticide program now on fall bearing varieties where fruit is ripening.

Blueberry harvest is in progress. Apply a pre-harvest insecticide for SWD to later varieties now as you harvest Duke and early varieties. Exirel will control both SWD and Japanese beetle. This is a critical time to begin a control program for SWD.

Strawberries should be mowed and renovated as soon as possible after harvest. Mowing strawberries will help fruit to dry up and make it less attractive to SWD. Growers who are renovating strawberries do not need to spray for SWD unless they have raspberries or blueberries or other susceptible fruit close by. Cygon or Lagon, when sprayed to control aphids in strawberries, is also toxic to SWD flies, and would be a good choice at renovation.

Day neutral strawberries - especially overwintering fields, are also susceptible to SWD now and some damage has been observed. Tarnished plant bug is also building up in day neutrals. Malathion for SWD will also control tarnished plant bug, and is a good choice now. Avoid use of Mako at this time, because it can lead to more problems with spider mites. Mako will work well in cooler weather

July 21 - SWD numbers have increased dramatically. More sites are positive and more SWD are being trapped. Last week we saw a big jump in SWD numbers in Essex County, and this week numbers are up in many locations in southern Ontario. We are now catching over 10 flies per trap which generally means that damage to crops is occurring. More SWD are being trapped in crops, not just the wild hosts around the farm. Low levels of damage has been detected in raspberries and day neutral strawberries.

SWD is now being trapped east of Toronto - in Durham region and Peterborough county. Also, first find in Wellington county has been reported.

All growers should assume that SWD is present now. Fruit which is ripening is at risk for SWD damage. SWD should be managed by picking fruit early, thoroughly and often. Sweet cherries, sour cherries, raspberries and blueberries will be attractive to SWD at this time, as well as strawberries. A list of registered insecticides for SWD can be found here: Ontario.ca/spotted wing - products registered for SWD. Weekly sprays will help keep SWD under control and are now required blackberries, fall-bearing raspberries and day neutral strawberries later in the season.

Salt water assessments of harvested fruit should be done routinely as an early warning of SWD problems.

In summer fruiting raspberries growers have typically managed SWD with few problems by harvesting thoroughly every day or two. However, this year, the crop is earlier, abundant and SWD numbers are higher than usual. An insecticide should be included in your SWD management program if you expect to continue harvesting into next week. A postharvest spray on raspberries is a good idea if fruit is left behind as you move from one variety (i.e. Prelude) to the next.

In fall bearing raspberries, SWD can build up on the early fruit at the base of the cane. If you are not harvesting this fruit, consider removing it or at least direct a nozzle to the base of the canes and start an insecticide program now on fall bearing varieties.

Blueberries are ripening. Apply a pre-harvest insecticide for SWD to later varieties now as you harvest Duke and early varieties. Exirel will control both SWD and Japanese beetle. This is a critical time to begin a control program for SWD.

Strawberries should be mowed and renovated as soon as possible after harvest. Mowing strawberries will help fruit to dry up and make it less attractive to SWD. Growers who are renovating strawberries do not need to spray for SWD unless they have raspberries or blueberries or other susceptible fruit close by. Cygon or Lagon, when sprayed to control aphids in strawberries, is also toxic to SWD flies, and would be a good choice at renovation.

Day neutral strawberries are also susceptible to SWD now and some damage has been observed. Tarnished plant bug is also building in day neutrals now. Malathion for SWD will also control tarnished plant bug, and is a good choice now. Avoid use of Mako at this time, because it can lead to more problems with spider mites. Mako will work well in cooler weather.

As cherries colour they will become more attractive to SWD. Consider using an insecticide that controls both cherry fruit fly and SWD in pre-harvest sprays. Delegate, Entrust, Success, Exirel, and Silencer would likely control both pests, if the timing and coverage are good.

July 15 - SWD numbers continue to increase. More sites are positive and more SWD are being trapped. This past week we have seen a big jump in SWD numbers in Essex County. So far our trap captures have been mostly in southern Ontario, but this past week we found the first trap capture in Durham region. Also, more SWD are being trapped in crops, not just the wild hosts around the farm.

We have trapped SWD in the following counties and regions: Essex, Kent, Middlesex, Oxford, Norfolk, Waterloo, Brant, Elgin, Haldimand, and Niagara and Durham regions.

Fruit which is ripening in these areas, and anywhere else in southern Ontario, is at risk for SWD damage. SWD should be managed by picking fruit early, thoroughly and often. Sweet cherries, sour cherries, raspberries and blueberries will be attractive to SWD at this time, as well as strawberries. A list of registered insecticides for SWD can be found here: Ontario.ca/spotted wing - products registered for SWD . Weekly sprays will help keep SWD under control, and will be required blackberries, fall-bearing raspberries and day neutral strawberries later in the season.

During this early stage, as SWD populations begin to ramp up, there are still many questions about when to start spraying. Salt water assessments of harvested fruit should be done routinely as an early warning of SWD problems.

In summer fruiting raspberries, growers have typically managed SWD with few problems by harvesting thoroughly every day or two. However, a pre-pick spray in late varieties may be required. A postharvest spray on raspberries is a good idea if fruit is left behind as you move from one variety (i.e. Prelude) to the next.

In fall bearing raspberries, SWD can build up on the early fruit at the base of the cane. If you are not harvesting this fruit, consider removing it or at least direct a nozzle to the base of the canes and start an insecticide program now on fall bearing varieties.

Blueberries are ripening. Apply a pre-harvest insecticide for SWD to later varieties now as you harvest Duke and early varieties. Exirel will control both SWD and Japanese beetle.

Strawberries should be mowed and renovated as soon as possible after harvest. Mowing strawberries will help fruit to dry up and make it less attractive to SWD. Growers who are renovating strawberries do not need to spray for SWD unless they have raspberries or blueberries or other susceptible fruit close by. Cygon or Lagon, when sprayed to control aphids in strawberries, is also toxic to SWD flies, and would be a good choice at renovation.

As cherries colour they will become more attractive to SWD. Consider using an insecticide that controls both cherry fruit fly and SWD in pre-harvest sprays. Delegate, Entrust, Success, Exirel, and Silencer would likely control both pests, if the timing and coverage are good.

July 9 - SWD numbers are starting to increase now. This past week we have seen an increase in the number of sites where SWD has been captured, and an increase in the number of SWD in the traps. Also, more SWD are being trapped in crops, not just the wild hosts around the farm.

So far our trap captures have been mostly in southern Ontario. We have trapped SWD in the following counties and regions: Essex, Kent, Middlesex, Oxford, Norfolk, Waterloo, Brant, Elgin and Niagara.

Fruit which is ripening in these areas, and anywhere else in southern Ontario, is at risk for SWD damage. SWD should be managed by picking fruit early, thoroughly and often. Sweet cherries, sour cherries and raspberries will be attractive to SWD at this time, as well as strawberries. A list of registered insecticides for SWD can be found here: Ontario.ca\spottedwing - products registered for SWD . Weekly sprays will help keep SWD under control, and will be required in blueberries, blackberries, fall-bearing raspberries and day neutral strawberries later in the season.

During this early stage, as SWD populations begin to ramp up, there are still many questions about when to start spraying. Salt water assessments of harvested fruit should be done routinely as an early warning of SWD problems.

In summer fruiting raspberries, growers have typically managed SWD with few problems by harvesting thoroughly every day or two. However, a pre-pick spray in late varieties, or an in-season spray may be required. A postharvest spray on raspberries is a good idea if fruit is left behind as you move from one variety (i.e. Prelude) to the next.

Strawberries should be mowed and renovated as soon as possible after harvest. Mowing strawberries will help fruit to dry up and make it less attractive to SWD. Growers who are renovating strawberries do not need to spray for SWD unless they have raspberries or blueberries or other susceptible fruit close by. Cygon or Lagon, when sprayed to control aphids in strawberries, is also toxic to SWD flies, and would be a good choice at renovation.

June 27 - Traps for SWD are installed at approximately 30 sites across Ontario (see map above). The monitoring program is coordinated by the OBGA with OMAFRA support.

Table: Summary of SWD trap capture as of June 27, 2016 (but not all traps are in from last week)

County or region # sites where SWD traps are located # positive sites Crops where flies were trapped # flies trapped
Essex
3
2
Wild host (2)
raspberries (1)
3
Kent
2
1
Wild host
1
Elgin
2
1
Strawberries
1
Middlesex
1
1
Wild host
1
Niagara
4
2
Wild host , strawberries
2

SWD flies have been trapped in the early regions of southern and Southwestern Ontario, beginning the week of June 6. So far counts are still very low - just a fly here and there- and mostly in wild hosts.

However, now that fruit is present on wild hosts in these areas (mulberries, wild raspberries, red elderberry, and early honeysuckle) SWD will be building up. We also expect it is building up in overripe strawberries.

Strawberries, sweet cherries, and early ripening raspberries may now be at risk, especially in Niagara and southwestern Ontario. Keep strawberries picked as clean as possible and renovate June bearing strawberries as soon as harvest is over.

Emergency use registrations are in place again this year for SWD control.

June 17 - Traps for SWD are installed at approximately 30 sites across Ontario. Thanks to the many summer students and agribusiness volunteers who are collecting traps each week.

  • The first SWD were trapped in traps collected June 6, in Harrow and in Niagara region. In both cases the traps were in wild host near the field edges.
  • This week (June 13-17, so far, SWD was trapped in a strawberry field in Elgin county in a fruiting strawberry field, and Kent county in a wild host .
  • Numbers are still 1 per trap in traps where SWD has been found.

It does seem a bit early, but it is normal to find the first SWD in wild hosts and in the early regions. Growers in southwestern Ontario and Niagara should keep a close eye on strawberries, because this is pretty much the only fruit out there and SWD will be finding it. Watch for unusually juicy soft fruit. A salt water test for larvae will quickly tell you if you need to tighten the picking schedule and spray an insecticide. In any case, pick as thoroughly as possible and chill fruit promptly after harvest.

Emergency use registrations are in place again this year for SWD control.

June 10 - Traps for SWD are installed at approximately 30 sites across Ontario. This week was the first week that traps were collected. Although not all samples have been processed, we have detected the first SWD at two sites, in the early areas of Ontario, in traps collected June 6-7.

In Essex county near Harrow, and in Niagara Region near Fenwick, we have confirmed a single SWD female fly at each site. In both cases the traps were placed in wild hosts in woods or hedgerows, not in crops.

These early areas are typically our first sites for SWD, and typically we find a few flies in wild hosts for a week or so before they move into crops. However, in Niagara and Essex regions, and other very early areas, SWD may begin to build up. Sweet cherries, and raspberries ripening in greenhouses may be at risk. Strawberries seem less susceptible early on, but should be harvested frequently and thoroughly.

It is interesting to compare our observations to the degree day model for SWD that was developed in Oregon. According to this model , and data published by Environment Canada for Beamsville and Harrow, the predicted event "first egg laying by the first generation of flies" has occurred in these locations.

A list of insecticides registered for SWD control in fruit crops has been updated for 2016 on the OMAFRA website.

June 8 - Traps are being placed across Ontario and our first samples have been processed. No SWD have been trapped so far.  According to the degree day model, overwintering SWD have been laying eggs since the end of May in early regions, but they can only do this where fruit is present. Because numbers are so low, we do not think strawberries are at risk at this time.

Emergency use registrations are in place again this year for SWD control.  There is one significant change to the malathion label; use of this product is now limited to 2 applications per year on strawberries.

June 1 - A regional monitoring program for SWD flies is in place for 2016, thanks to collaboration between the Ontario Berry Growers Association and OMAFRA. Thanks also to the many agribusiness professionals, consultants, scouts and farmers who are volunteering time to pick up traps. Traps will be set up the week of May 30 and we will begin reporting trap captures the week of June 6. We are already trapping at a few local hot spots but no SWD have been captured. The degree day model information (Oregon model) suggests that overwintering SWD flies could be laying eggs in developing fruit. However there is very little fruit around and since populations are EXTREMELY LOW at this time, control is not required anywhere in Ontario right now.

Emergency use registrations are in place again this year for SWD control and we will post this information early next week. There is one significant change to the malathion label-use of this product is now limited to 2 applications per year.


For more information:
Toll Free: 1-877-424-1300
E-mail: ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca